3. In fact, the vast majority of drug dosage forms are designed for oral ingestion, primarily for ease of . Pulmonary drug delivery having very negligible side effects since rest of body is not exposed to drug. Oral. The chief advantage is that liver is bypassed and drugs with high first pass metabolism can be absorbed directly into systemic circulation. Routes of Administration. von | le laboureur wool chore jacket | le laboureur wool chore jacket Non-invasive systemic drug delivery: developability considerations for alternate routes of administration. Administration of the drug into some deep tissues by injection, e.g. Drug round. ORAL ROUTE DISADVANTAGES 1. The route is suitable for administration of drugs that are not absorbed from the gut or are too . 2- It is a safe route since in over dose it can be managed. ( Shubhika Kwatra et al, 2012). Oral drug delivery is by far the most well-known and often the preferred route of drug administration due to its non-invasive nature, ease-of-use, cost-effectiveness, and the highly absorptive properties of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Enteral Routes It includes oral, sublingual and rectal routes. However, in 1994 the law was changed to allow district nurses and health visitors employed in pilot sites throughout England to prescribe from a limited formulary. Drugs given sublingually are—GTN, buprenorphine, desamino-oxytocin. Biopharmaceutical aspects of route of administration: Oral and parental (i.m.) Best for emergencies. Intranasal Drug Administration — An Attractive Delivery Route for Some Drugs. Absorption of these drugs is given by the membrane permeability. Various factors govern oral drug absorption including drug solubility, mucosal permeability, and stability in the gastrointestinal tract environment. Transdermal min to hours. Unlike nitrous oxide sedation and intravenous (IV) sedation, patients take the sedative in the form of a pill in the hours leading up to the appointment. Drugs are effective only if they reach their site of action. The same drug administered via a certain route 1. may be therapeutic 2. Absorption after oral administration can be quite variable. Govt. Time to Effect vs Route. Oral 30-90 min. Rectal 5-30 min. Figures and tables can be seen in the attached print-friendly PDF file of the complete article. It requires low and fraction of oral dose i.e. Subcutaneous 15-30 min. A list of commonly used routes of drug administration can be found below, along with useful information about dosage and abbreviations. The nasal route has shown remarkable advantages that include a rapid and high systemic availability, avoidance of first pass metabolism by the liver, and . - no need for sterilization. The oral administration route is preferred over the various other administration routes of drug delivery due to the many advantages it exhibits. Drug delivery characteristics and pharmacodynamic prop-erties vary depending on the route of administration chosen for the drug. 3. When administering a drug, the nurse should ensure that the pharmaceutical preparation is appropriate for the route specified. Advantages of topical route of drug administration 1. The unique requirements of peptides and proteins in designing delivery systems, and the unprecedented recent growth in the field, has driven a great deal of research into novel means of drug delivery. Advantages and Disadvantages of Oral Sedation Oral sedation, also known as pill sedation, is one of the three sedation methods dentists use to help calm patients down during dental procedures. Advantages: Convenient - portable, safe, no pain, easy to take. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic . Used for most dermatologic and ophthalmologic preparations. Generally, slower absorption rate compared to IV bolus or IM injection. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. Inhalation 2-3 min. The following is a list of complications associated with having an enteral feeding tube inserted: Traumatic insertion (eg. We went through the classification of dosage forms generally. 2. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Although solid-dose forms such as tablets and capsules have a high degree of drug stability and provide accurate dosage, the oral route is problematic because of the unpredictable nature of . for oral administration In this chapter we will: examine the types and uses of pharmaceutical solutions as oral drug delivery systems provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of pharmaceutical solutions as oral drug delivery systems describe the formulation considerations for orally administered pharmaceutical solutions. 74Intravenous administration of drugs Administration of intravenous medication can be defined as the process within which a solution or medication is introduced, using a vein, into the circulatory system. Drug stability: Drugs unstable in GI environment are poor candidates for oral sustained release system. Advantages of oral route of drug administration: The major advantage of the oral route of drug administration is that it is a simple, convenient, safest drug that readily available by prescription. A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the way by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.. We went through the classification of dosage forms generally. Appropriate administration route depends on 1. the available dosage form of the drug 2. the patient's age 3. the patient's condition, e.g., level of consciousness, etc. 3. routes followed by transdermal are most popular. Farm., Apt Drug Absorption, Bioavailability • Absorption describes the rate at which a drug leaves its site of administration and the extent to which this occurs • Bioavailability is a term used to inside fractional extent to which dose of a drug reaches its site of action or a biological fluid from which drug has access to site of action . administration of triamcinolone directly into the joint space in rheumatoid arthritis. While many routes the most common route of drug administration. Disadvantages: 1- Some drugs are destroyed by gastro-intestinal juice as Penicillin. intravenous 18 advantages bioavailability 100% disadvantages desired blood concentrations achieved irritation & cellulitis large quantities thrombophelebitis vomiting & diarrhea repeated injections not emergency situations always feasible first pass avoided less safe gastric manupalation technical assistance avoided … We mentioned that dosage form of a medication is the mean by which it reaches its action site. - convenience: self-administered. These advantages include safety, good patient compliance, ease of ingestion, pain avoidance, and versatility to accommodate various types of drugs (Sastry et al., 2000). Advantages of oral route of drug administration 1. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. 8 For oral drug delivery to be successful, the aqueous solubility of the drug compound in the GI system . Figures and tables can be seen in the attached print-friendly PDF file of the complete article. 1. Variety of dosage forms available and may use immediate-release and modified-release drug products . Advantages: Safest and easiest route of drug administration. Routes of Drug Administration. Disadvantages of the oral route of administration include the relatively slow onset of action, the possibilities of irregular absorption, the destruction of acid-labile drugs in the stomach, and the unsuitability of this route for many high-molecular-weight drugs. By Andy Brata, S. Intramuscular 10-20 min. Disadvantages: 1- Some drugs are destroyed by gastro-intestinal juice as Penicillin. • Titration of dose is possible. The several distinct advantages of the transdermal drug delivery system is that the skin presents a relatively large and readily accessible surface area (1-2 m2) for absorption, which can be used to an advantage by application of a patch-like device to the skin surface, which is a non-invasive and thus a patient compliant procedure that . Dosage form design may also be used modify the rate of absorption. Topical route includes: a. Enepidermic route. Routes of minor importance in sustained drug delivery are buccal/sublingual, nasal, rectal, ocular and pulmonary . poorly aqueous soluble drugs to improve dissolution 8. Slow absorption slow action - can not used in emergency 2. Intraosseous 30-60 sec. Rate of drug absorption depends on blood flow and injection volume. Describe oral transmucosal drug delivery, and the specific tissues that are the primary focus of this transmission route. 1. Part one of this four-part series discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the oral route. Shepherd M (2011) Nursing Times; 107: 32/33, early online publication. The search for approaches that provide formulations that are stable, bioavailable, readily manufact … It is convenient for repeated and prolonged use. ABOUT AUTHOR: Abhijeet Welankiwar. Drugs are introduced into the body by several routes. 4. Best for emergencies. Due to large advantages of the TDDS, . inhalation route of drug administration disadvantages. The abused substance may be smoked, inhaled, partaken orally or received by a fetus through the mother's blood stream. Therapy through intranasal administration has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. Drug therapy plays a major part in the treatment of patients. Non-parenteral Rout Medication Administration Oral medication administration Definition: is the most common and convenient type for most clients by which the drug is swallowed to the stomach, or administrated under the tongue for slow action. Despite the advantages, these routes of administration face challenges including a relatively small surface area for effective drug absorption, small volume of fluid for drug dissolution and the presence of a mucus barrier, thereby limiting the number of drugs that are suitable to be delivered through the transmucosal route. It therefore allows delivery of smaller drug doses and the occurrence of side effects is reduced compared with systemic routes of drug administration (eg, oral, intravenous and epidural). immediate cessation of administration is possible if unwanted effects occur during administration. 13 August, 2011 By NT Contributor. REGISTER TO DOWNLOAD FOR FREE. Rectal 5-30 min. As compared to the parenteral method of administration, it has potential benefits such as increased patient compliance, fewer problems, and reduced treatment costs. Convenient ( storage, portability, pre measured dose), economical, non invasive often safer route, requires no special training . Small doses limit use. Examples include poultices, plasters, creams and ointments. Advantages are that the i.v. 2. Transdermal min to hours. 2. Routes of Drug Administration Advantages of Inhalation Rapid action of the drug, with local effects with in the respiratory tract Potent drugs may be given in small . disadvantages of capsulessum of array in java without using loop. b. Epidermic route (Innunition): When the drug is rubbed into the skin, it is known as epidermic route. resulting in epistaxis, or damage to abdominal organs in the case of PEG insertion . With many drugs the basic Goal of therapy is to achieve a steady-state blood or tissue level that is therapeutically . Intravenous 30-60 sec. Traditionally, medicines have been prescribed by doctors and the nurse's responsibility has been to ensure safe and reliable administration and to monitor side-effects. 2010;99(1):1-20. The mouth route is the most commonly used route of drug administration due to the ease in which the drugs can be taken. Drugs are effective only if they reach their site of action. Administration of drugs 1: oral route. If a drug has right mix of physical chemistry and pharmacology, transdermal delivery is a remarkable effective route of administration. Disadvantages of digitalization in education sector It is true that . While the advantage of IV drug use is a fast high, there can be several complications with intravenous injection such as infections, visible scarring, and damage to the veins. Routes of enteral nutrition. Submitted: May 28th, 2014Reviewed: October 8th, 2014Published: June 3rd, 2015. Snorting This route of administration began to emerge from the 1850s. It is the simplest, most convenient, and safest means of drug administration. • Large volume of fluids might be injected by this route • Diluted irritant might be injected • Absorption is not required • No first pass effect takes place. Per os abbreviated to P.O. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect, reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream, for example. Previously, we talked about dosage forms and their significance. Transepithelial electrical resistance is one of the parameters used to measure the integrity and tightness of the barrier and is the lowest in the . The drug is slowly absorbed through the vaginal wall. Enteral—Entering Intestinal/Digestive Tract. Oral (PO( Absorption may vary. While drugs can be injected in several different locations in the body, intravenous injection is a common route of administration for drug addicts. The nasal cavity has for more than three decades been widely explored as a potential alternative route to oral or parenteral administration for systemically active drugs. assessment for the parenteral and or inhalation route of administration, modifying factors based on oral bioavailability were used to derive the PDE from the oral PDE: • Oral bioavailability <1% . This time we are going to highlight the renowned oral dosage forms. Oral Route • Safest route • Commonest • Convenient • No skill required, self medication • Painless, & acceptable • Cost effective • No maximal/strict sterilization required 14. It is economical since it does not involve the patient in extra cost. 3- Oral drugs can be given in different pharmaceutical shapes. 3- Some drugs cause local irritation to the mucous membrane. Routes of Administration A. route gives swift, effective and highly predictable blood concentration and allows rapid modification of dose, i.e. J Control Release. This route may be painful , irritant drugs can cause local tissue damage. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. Administration of drugs 1: oral route. In the current scenario, Transdermal and Parenteral are the leading routes of drug administration, other than the most common route-the Oral route. Therapy through intranasal administration has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. Regardless of t … Its poorly aqueous soluble drugs to improve the dissolution step development (e. B. Routes of Drug Administration Oral (PO) Oral administration will be covered in more detail in subsequent Chapters. Written By. Sublingual 3-5 min. So in this situation the drug can be given through rectal/urethral/vaginal route. Inhalation 2-3 min. In this part I deal with intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and in part 2 other routes. 2011;153(2):106-116. Here I describe the uses and characteristic adverse effects of commonly used routes of administration. The sublingual and buccal routes also have advantages of rapid absorption, convenience, and low infection incidence. Therapeutic objectives (for example, the desirability of a rapid onset of action, the need for long-term treatment, or restriction of delivery to a local site). Nasal drug delivery. Routes of Drug Administration 1. - safe: drug undergoes metabolism. Endotracheal 2-3 min. Formulation modification A Drugs or medicament are administered through a different route the most common oral and parenteral route while rectal route is less commonly used in routine practice. The main classification is according to the route of administration, or physical form. Overview Route of Administration shall consist of an alphabetic term which has a maximum length shall be restricted to 60 characters, with the hyphen and virgule being only punctuation permissible. We mentioned that dosage form of a medication is the mean by which it reaches its action site. Properties of the drug (for example, water or lipid solubility, ionization) 2. Oral Advantages. Part one of this four-part series discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the oral route. Advances in biotechnology have made available […] Sublingual 3-5 min. A rectal route is useful for patients with gastrointestinal motility problems such as dysphagia or ileus that can interfere with delivering the drug in the intestinal tract. When the drug is applied to the outer skin, it is called enepidermic route of drug administration. DOI: 10.5772/59468. - usually good absorption takes place along the whole length of the GI tract. Rectal Certain irritant and unpleasant drugs can be put into rectum as suppositories or retention enema for systemic effect. Intraosseous 30-60 sec. Purpose 1. routes. Oral Smoking, Oral Oral, Parental, Smoking . 2. 4. 4. Time to Effect vs Route. 5. Available as a ready-to-use, with no preparation or extra requirement, it can be self-administered with water or as it is. . 290 Memorial Drive, Sydney Mines | (902) 736-1211 Shepherd M (2011) Nursing Times; 107: 32/33, early online publication. is sometimes used as a direction for medication to be taken orally. There are numerous ways of feeding somebody via their own gut, and most of them involve some sort of tube. 2- It is a safe route since in over dose it can be managed. Oral dosage forms require careful pharmaceutical formulation. Route Advantages Disadvantages Oral Most convenient Usually least expensive Safe, does not break . This is usually achieved by oral administration, but other routes are possible. Here I describe the uses and characteristic adverse effects of commonly used routes of administration. List the advantages and limitations of this method of drug administration. In this part I deal with intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and in part 2 other routes. 3- Some drugs cause local irritation to the mucous membrane. The oral route is the most frequently used route of medicines administration and is the most convenient and cost-effective (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). Patel VF, Liu F, Brown MB. The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance are important in the design of nasal drug delivery system which remains the preferred route of drug delivery in spite of various disadvantages. Intramuscular 10-20 min. Convenient to use and easy to apply. Advances in biotechnology have made available […] This time we are going to highlight the renowned oral dosage forms. The intrathecal route allows direct drug administration to the CSF by circumventing the blood-brain barrier. Avoidance of first pass metabolism. Disadvantages of Oral admin. Explain various forms of oral transmucosal delivery, and clinical applications for this approach. To provide safe, effective drug therapy with minimal complications and discomfort. 2. It can be self-administered and pain-free. Vaginal route. This is usually achieved by oral administration, but other routes are possible. - pain free, non-invasive and easy to take. The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance are important in the design of nasal drug delivery system which remains the preferred route of drug delivery in spite of various disadvantages. J Pharm Sci. This route is often used to give estrogen to women during menopause to relieve vaginal symptoms such as dryness, soreness, and redness. Endotracheal 2-3 min. Advantages of the Intravenous Route Immediate effect (suitable for emergencies) Can be given to unconscious patients Avoids first-pass metabolism Achieves predictable and precise control over drug plasma levels compared to other routes Disadvantages of the Intravenous Route Possible anaphylaxis Risk of infection Inconvenient to the patient Painful I. 2- Some drugs are not absorbed from GIT as gentamycine. 220.127.116.11.1 Epithelial barriers of the gastrointestinal tract. - economical: compared to other parenteral routes. It is the most preferred route, due to its advantages, such as non-invasiveness, patient compliance and convenience of drug administration. A route of drug administration is the path by which a drug or other substance is brought into contact with the body. Inhaled drug delivery puts drug where it is needed. Systemic Routes Drugs administered by this route enter blood and produce systemic effects. Advances in oral transmucosal drug delivery. Advantages are that a drug that is irritant to the stomach can be given by suppository (aminophylline, indomethacin); the route is suitable in vomiting, motion sickness, migraine or when a patient cannot swallow, and when cooperation is lacking (sedation in children).
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