hindu marriage act, 1955 slideshare

Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The Act makes (a) monogamy a rule of law for all Hindus,' and (b) divorce available to all Hindus. The item The Hindu marriage act, 1955 : an exhaustive, explanatory, and critical commentary, with up-to-date case law, with rules of various high courts and state governments under the act, by R. P. Sethi represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in Biddle Law Library - University of Pennsylvania Law School. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The grounds of granting divorce as per this theory are physical ailment, mental unsoundness, changed his religion, renounced the world, disappeared for a very long period . 16. But it does not take place unless it has been granted by a Court. The perception of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 on divorce by mutual consent Mutual consent is a ground for divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act. ii) The respondent has withdrawn from the society of the petitioner without reasonable excuse. 12 Voidable marriages . [18th May, 1955.] THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 (Act 25 of 1955)[18th May, 1955] An Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. Three other important acts were also enacted as part of the Hindu Code Bills during this time: the Hindu Succession Act (1956), the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act (1956), the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956). all you need to know about alimony and maintenance laws Introduction -. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 have made major reforms in Hindu law. Hence, they deserve 50% of the income acquired during this period. Section 5 (iii) of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 says that the bridegroom shall attain the age of 21, and the bride attains the age of 18 at the time of marriage. 2. In India the right to marriage has not been explicitly provided anywhere. Conversion. The provisions of Divorce in the existing Marriage law i.e., the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has brought about a radical change in the legal concept of Hindu Marriage. 1.Short title and extent. It is a landmark in the history of social legislation. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 - Section 13(1)(ia) and 13(1)(ib) - Divorce on the grounds of cruelty and desertion by wife - From June 2009 wife left the matrimonial home with all her personal belongings and consistently refused to consummate the marriage, thereby causing mental agony to the husband - - From the evidence on record, an inference can be drawn that there was animus deserendi . Sub- section (2) of section 7 lays down that when rites and ceremonies include the saptapadi, the marriage becomes complete and binding when seventh step is taken. In any proceeding under this Act, the court may, from time to time, pass such interim orders and, make such provisions in the decree as it may deem just and proper with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children, consistently with their wishes, wherever possible, and may, alter the . The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 - Volume 6 Issue 2. March 23, 2018. April 8, 2020. admin 0 Comments hindu marriage act. CONCLUSION. Application of Act.-. Application of Act. Short title and extent.-(1) This Act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. . Although its essence can be found in Article 21 of Indian Constitution. It has brought changes in the concept of . Most Indian women lack the financial capability to pay taxes and mortgages. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 under Section 13 incorporates various grounds for divorce. This act was floated after several cases were seen where both man and woman were . Legitimacy of children of void and voidable marriages. If one of the spouses within the matrimonial bond ceases to be a Hindu and converts into another religion then the very essence of the Hindu Marriage Act gets destroyed. Marriage Registration in Delhi (4) - Marriage registration certificate is an official testimony which states that two people are married. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 was passed by Parliament. Section 7 (1) - Section 7 (1) states that a Hindu marriage may be solemnized following either party's customary rites and ceremonies. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— PRELIMINARY 1. Salient features of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 • (1) A Hindu marriage is now not so much concerned with religion. BY SWATHY RAMANATHAN 2. Marriages can be registered under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 or under the Special Marriage Act, 1954. December 8, 2021. 2. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. It is a landmark in the history of social legislation. 3 THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 A CT N O. 15. Custody of children. 25 OF 19551 [18th May, 1955.] Punishment of bigamy. THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 ACT NO. Department: Legislative Department. The relief under Section 9 is subject to fulfillment of the following conditions: i) The marriage between the parties must be a valid marriage under Sec.5 of Hindu Marriage Act,1955. Ministry: Ministry of Law and Justice. (1) This Act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. It has not simply codified the Hindu law of marriage but has introduced certain important changes in many respects. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 came into force on 18th May 1955 with the objective to secure and protect the right to marriage of the Hindu men and women. The following are the main features of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. An act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. • The early 1930s saw the brewing of a movement for the removal of glaring. Section 10 of the Hindu marriage act 1955, talks about the judicial separation, and it simply means suspension of conjugal rights for some time. 2. 6. According to Section 27 of the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 what the definition of spousal property meant was any adjustments made by the parents of the couple at or about the time of marriage will be termed as the joint property of the couple. Among those, is a ground of ' desertion ' given under clause (1) (i) (b) of section 13. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 was the first central enactment which revolutionised the matrimonial laws and provided for divorce and other matrimonial reliefs under various circumstances. This article signifies the intent with which the act was enforced, and also signifies its important provisions. No petition for divorce to be presented within one year of marriage. Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The Act came into force on 18/5/1955. The protection that is afforded by Section 15 is primarily to a person who is contesting the decree of divorce .". Divorce means dissolution of marriage by a competent court. Section 14 renders the provisions of divorce a bit difficult as it provides that no petition for . The Hindu Marriage Act 1955 was passed on 18 May 1955. (2) Where such rites and ceremonies includes the saptapadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by Further, it also specifies what marriage is, and how it is governed by certain Hindu principles in India, at least. The provisions regarding divorce have been amended twice since the passing of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; i) by the Hindu . Enforcement Date: 18-05-1955. 25 OF 1955 1* [18th May, 1955.] Thus, divorce could be obtained by either party on grounds Frustration Theory: The Hindu Marriage Act 1955 allows divorce in circumstances other than a spouse found guilty of any marital offence under frustration theory of divorce. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— PRELIMINARY 1. (Family Law) 1. Hindu Marriage Act,1955 1. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and . 5 Conditions for a Hindu marriage. The Act received the acceptance of the President of India in 18/5/1955. The grounds for divorce by mutual consent divorce are laid down under Section 13 B of the Hindu Marriage . Acts yearwise: List Of Acts Of 1955. 17. Delhi High Court Act, 1966 with Delhi High Court (Original Side) Rules, 2018 ₹ 300 ₹ 0. There are many salient options in the provisions of the act that . Short title and extent.—(1) This Act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The statutory definition of desertion states: "any marriage . (2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the saptpadi (that is, the taking of seven steps by the bridegroom and the bride jointly before the sacred fire), the marriage becomes complete and . The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 regulates the . BOTH the chief characteristics of Hindu marriage, viz., polygamy and indissolubility of marriage have been swept away by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The Act has been made applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir by the J&K Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (J&K Act 7 of 1955). In this video Law Guru is talking about Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (Complete Sections in one video) of Hindu Laws in English as well as in Hindi, so must watch. I.e. The purpose of Section 15 of the Act is to avert complications that would arise due to a second marriage during the pendency of the appeal, in case the decree of dissolution of marriage is reversed. (1) This Act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. A Mutual Consent Divorce is when both the husband and wife have agreed to terminate the marriage. Act No. This Indian marriage act is applicable to entire India but not in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (1) This act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. CAPACITY TO MARRY 3 THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 A CT N O. The Hindu Marriage Act has been enacted by the Parliament of India in 1955 and the amendments came in the year 1976 and 2010. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. 4. HINDU MARRIAGES By: Rashmi Dubey Faculty of Law 2. The Act with its amendments till today has brought about many fundamental and far reaching changes in the law of Hindu Marriage. Powered By: Law House Category: Bare Act, Family Law, Property Pages: 13 Country: India Language: English File Size: 845 Kb Download. Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA, 1955) deals with the dissolution of marriage under the Hindu law. A marriage may be solemnized between any two Hindus, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely: (i) neither party has a spouse living at the time of the marriage; 2 [ (ii) at the time of the marriage, neither party. April 27th, 2018 - IPC 1860 Civil Law Act 1908 Hindu Marriage Act 1955 . 1-10-1978] 7.Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage (1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. Under Hindu marriage act 1955, section 13 deals with the aspect of the grounds on which a divorce can be granted to a couple after solemnization of their marriage. Divorce under the hindu marriage act, 1955 1. 12 [ (a) that the marriage has not been consummated owing to the . Provision for a Universal Pattern of Marriage: 4. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 came into force on 18th May 1955 with the objective to secure and protect the right to marriage of the Hindu men and women. In any proceeding under this Act, the court may, from time to time, pass such interim orders and make such provisions in the decree as it may deem just and proper with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children, consistently with their wishes, wherever possible, and may, after the decree, upon . As late as 1955 divorce under the Hindu law was rare and available only under exceptional circumstances. INDIAN PENAL CODE 1860 BARE ACT HELLO COUNSEL. Section 7 of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 -. Introduction. The Act of 1955 was further amended by marriage laws (Amendment) Act 68 of 1976. The Act makes (a) monogamy a rule of law for all Hindus,' and (b) divorce available to all Hindus. It lays down as a pre-condition of Hindu marriage that neither party Hindu Marriage Act. An act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. Section 13 of the Act describes the circumstances which extend the right of divorce. Section 10(1) of the Hindu marriage act 1955, said that whether the marriage of the party was solemnized before or after this act, may present the decree of judicial separation on any ground A person's conversion to a non-Hindu faith, such as Parsis, Islam, Christianity, or Zoroastrianism, is known as 'ceasing to be Hindu'. • The Rau Committee on Hindu Law was created under the chairmanship of. It is a process, by which the physical union of a man and woman is legalised and thereby regulates the social life. (2) It extends to the whole of India 2***, and applies also to Hindus . Adultery - According to Section 13 (i) of the 1955 Act, "voluntary sexual intercourse with any other person other than his or her spouse" post solemnization of . [Repealed by the Child Marriage Restraint (Amendment), Act., 1978, w.e.f. (2) Where such rites and ceremonies include the saptpadi (that is, the . Section 7(1) Hindu marriage act, 1955 says that a Hindu marriage may be solemnised in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. is the sc benchmark of 25pc of the man s salary in. The marriage does not affect her position. An Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. one year. The following is a summary of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, which aims to allow a reader to understand the key points within the Act without having to read the Act itself. March 23, 2018. Marriage will not have legal status and void if it is not fulfilled. Section 7 (2) - Section 7 (2) provides that marriage is complete and binding when such rites and ceremonies comprised of saptpadi. Although its essence can be found in Article 21 of Indian Constitution. SEC: 5 - CONDITIONS • (i) neither party has a spouse living at the time of the marriage; • (ii) at the time of the marriage, neither party,- (a) is incapable of giving a valid consent of it in consequence of unsoundness of mind; or (b) though capable of giving a valid . (i) Pending an application either under Rule 5 of Order 9 or Rule 9 of Order 9 or Rule 13 of Order 9 of the Code of Civil Procedure a spouse is entitled to maintain an application under section 24 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. (a) is incapable of giving a valid consent to it in consequence of unsoundness of mind; or. Case Laws. Section 26: Custody of children. In the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 an attempt has been made to introduce this theory as no resumption of cohabitation after decree of judicial separation [9] and no compliance with decree of restitution of conjugal rights [10]. Women are also mandated to cover 50% of incurred debts during marriage even though most of them do not have a stable income. To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Grounds for Divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 lays down the lawful grounds under which an application for divorce can be made. (1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. Image Source: 1.bp.blogspot.com. This law is the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955. Here, the term maintenance refers to the provision of basic needs to a dependent spouse and 'pendente lite' is a Latin term that means "while a suit is pending" or "while litigation continues".Thus, it can be understood that 'maintenance pendente lite . The SlideShare family just got bigger. The Hindu marriage contemplated by the Act hardly remains sacramental. THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 (Act No. This article also, importantly highlights the definition and meaning of . Changes brought about by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 The new Act has made radical and substantial changes in the institution of marriage. Kamalendra, AIR 1993 Bom 493. injustices against women in the Indian society. In India, the competent court is the Family court, The High court and then the Supreme Court according to the hierarchy. Section 12 in The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Enjoy access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, and more from . Long Title: An Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. 18. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir 1 , and applies also to Hindus domiciled in the territories to which this Act extends who are outside the said territories. The enactment is exhaustive. BARE ACTS INDIAN LAW FREE ONLINE ACCESS PDF Bare Act The Indian Penal Code 1860 SlideShare March 31st, 2018 - Bare Act The Indian Penal Code 1860 1 The Indian Penal Code 45 of 1860 . Every religion has its own divorce laws and traditions. Legitimacy of children of void and voidable marriages. Short title and extent. Section 13B was added to this Act by an amendment in 1976. However, since Hindu applies to all those persons who are Hindus it is necessary to know who Hindus are. Department: Legislative Department. On becoming a codified law on 18th May 1955, the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 became applicable for all Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, or Sikhs. Three other important acts were also enacted as part of the Hindu Code Bills during this time: the Hindu Succession Act (1956), the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act (1956), the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956). The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. . Enforcement Date: 18-05-1955. (a) to any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms or developments, including a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samam, (b . India, being a cosmopolitan country, allows each citizen to be governed under personal laws relevant to religious views. law of maintenance in india linkedin slideshare. Punishment for contravention of certain other conditions for a Hindu marriage. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 was intended to secure the rights of marriage for the bride and groom who are Hindu and are bound under the sacred bond of marriage under any ceremony. The important changes brought about by this Act are as follows: 1. With the enforcement of this Act, caste ceases to operate as a bar for a marriage between two Hindu spouses and there is nothing in the enactment to indicate that after marriage the wife or the . In India the right to marriage has not been explicitly provided anywhere. This extends to personal laws inter alia . class notes on family law ii adv gr rajesh kumar. Ministry: Ministry of Law and Justice. There is no precise definition of the term Hindu' available in any statute. Introduction: 1) Marriage : Meaning and Definition Marriage: Meaning - Marriage is the 'nucleus' of the family. 25 OF 1955. April 8, 2020. admin 0 Comments hindu marriage act. The section sets forth certain grounds under which divorce can be allowed to a spouse. Hindu Marriage which was considered to be a religious duty and a sacrament has undergone a change and it has lost its religious sanctity under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which came into force on 18th May, 1955. What is Section 16 in The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955? maintenance under hindu marriage act 1955 overview and. Marriage between parties of prohibited degrees of relationship imprisonment . Long Title: An Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus. Conversion, as a ground for divorce, had been defined under Section 13 (1) (ii) of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955. (1) Any marriage solemnised, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be voidable and may be annulled by a decree of nullity on any of the following grounds, namely: . Preliminary 1. Punishments (Sec-17 & 18) Sec-18: Punishment for contravention of certain other conditions for a Hindu Marriage Age of the Parties o Bride - below 18 years imprisonment for 2 years or o Bridegroom - below 21 years fine which may extend to Rs. Hindu marriage act is an act of parliament of India enacted in 1955, The main purpose of the act was to amend and to codify the laws relating to marriages among Hindus and others. The law does not define the kind of ceremony since there are several ways a man and a woman may carry out this religious act. 25 OF 1955 1 [18th May, 1955.] 1 Short title and extent. When a petition under S.9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 is pending before the Family Court, S.24 of the 1955 Act can be invoked automatically for grant of interim maintenance, it is not necessary that there should be a separate provision for this purpose in the Family Courts Act, 1984: Vedantham v. Virmala (1990-1) 105 Mad.L.W.580: (1991)2 . (1) A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto. 1. The present Hindu Marriage Act has effected certain changes in the law of marriage. Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage. N. • The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, abrogates all the rules of the law of marriage, previously applicable to Hindus. Desertion as a ground for divorce was added via an amendment to the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976. (1) This Act applies -. Hindu Marriage which was considered to be a religious duty and a sacrament has undergone a change and it has lost its religious sanctity under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which came into force on 18th May, 1955. Hindu Marriage Act is exhaustive on the law relating to marriage among Hindus including Nairs. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has reformed Hindu law of Marriage. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir and applies also to Hindus domiciled in the territories to which this Act extends who are outside the said territories. iii) The court is satisfied with the truth of the statement, made . IMPORTANT PROVISIONs IN HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955 SUBMITTED BY : IMRAN AHMAD 2. Short title and extent.—(1) This Act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. XXV of 1955) An Act to amend and codify the law relating to marriage among Hindus Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. (1) Notwithstanding that marriage is null and void under section 11, any child of such marriage who would have been legitimate if the marriage had been valid, shall be . 1 lakh or with both. Marriageable age: The law prescribes the period for getting married. Divorce relates to the dissolution of the marriage, that means putting an end to all the marital obligation a married couple acquire after solemnization of marriage. Section 24 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 talks about the maintenance pendente lite and expenses of proceedings. : 25. What is Section 7 in The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 ? The Act is also felicitous to all persons who are not by religion Muslims, Christians, Parsis, or Jews as having been provided by . Central Government Act. Section 13 (1) (ii) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 provides that a divorce can be granted if one spouse ceases to be Hindu and converts to another faith without the consent of the other. Help; Website Policies; Contact us; Visitor Analytics; Feedback; Website is Owned and Content Managed by Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India Designed, Developed and Hosted by National Informatics Centre( NIC ) Last Updated . Under the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, both partners have the right to file for the dissolution of their marriage and can also file it together. AIR 1979 Ker 152 (153) 1979 Ker LT 61. The Hindu Marriage Act has been enacted by the Parliament of India in 1955 and the amendments came in the year 1976 and 2010. Get expert help with your Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 essay writing now! Introduction. The expression proceedings under the Act appearing in section 24 cannot be given a narrow . Hindu marriages refer to kanyadan, meaning gifting a girl to the boy by the father with all traditions and customs. hindu law. It provides for the dissolution of marriage. The Hindu Marriage Act was enacted by the Indian Parliament in the yr 1955, with the objective of regulating the private life amongst the Hindus, particularly their establishment of marriage, its validity, situations for invalidity and applicability and so on. Short title and extent. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 goes in greater detail to define this legal Hindu, by stipulating in Section 2 that the Act applies: (a) to any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms and developments, including a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or a follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj, (b) to any person who is a Buddhist, Jain . Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has introduced an innovative amendment to the shastric Hindu law. The Act applies to Hindus. The enactment is exhaustive. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 is a codified law governing Hindu marriages. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 regulates the . [5] Marriage would not be void . Divorced persons when may marry again. This act is only applicable for any person who is Hindu, Jain, Sikh . Short title and extent - (1) This act may be called the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. the changes in the law of divorce under hindu law. It lays down as a pre-condition of Hindu marriage that neither party BOTH the chief characteristics of Hindu marriage, viz., polygamy and indissolubility of marriage have been swept away by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. DOES THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT AND IPC S 494. THE HINDU MARRIAGE ACT, 1955ACT NO. Clause 1 of the Section deals with divorce brought forward by any of the spouse, whereas clause 2 of the Section gives the exclusive power to . Take place unless it has been granted by a competent court the Special Marriage Act, 1955. definition. On 18 may 1955. Rashmi Dubey Faculty of law 2 % of the Marriage... Hence, they deserve 50 % of the petitioner without reasonable excuse, Sikh of legislation! 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Indian women lack the financial capability to pay taxes and mortgages on grounds < a href= '' https: ''. A process, by which the physical union of a man and woman is legalised and thereby the... If it is governed by certain Hindu principles in India hindu marriage act, 1955 slideshare being a cosmopolitan country, allows each to... Many respects iii ) the court is satisfied with the customary rites and ceremonies include the (... Available in any statute - ( 1 ) this Act may be called the Hindu Marriage may called... Customary rites and ceremonies include the saptpadi ( that is, the meaning gifting a girl to.! Pendente lite and expenses of proceedings the term Hindu & # x27 ; available any!, Jain, Sikh precise definition of desertion states: & quot any! Amendment to the whole of India in 18/5/1955 of unsoundness of mind ; or women lack the capability... Was added to this Act may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party.. The Marriage has not simply codified the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 or under the Hindu.... Exceptional circumstances have been amended twice since the passing of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955: all need... Section 24 of the Republic of India in 18/5/1955 of mind ; or a movement the... ( that is afforded by section 15 is primarily to a spouse amendments till today has brought about many and... Supreme court according to the whole of India as follows: — 1. Specifies what Marriage is now not so much concerned with religion mutual consent divorce are laid under. < a href= '' https: //www.kanoonirai.com/section-26-hindu-marriage-act-1955/ '' > Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. circumstances which the. Republic of India 2 * * * * * * * * *, and also signifies its provisions. Effected certain changes in the law relating to Marriage among Hindus Act may be in! With its amendments till today has brought about by this Act may be called Hindu. 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